Study Shows Relationship Between Respiratory Diseases & Periodontal Disease
†Professor and Head, Dept of Periodontics, K.M.C.T. Dental College, Mannassery, Mukkam, Calicut, Kerala, India.
Background: Recent research indicates that periodontal infection may worsen systemic diseases, including pulmonary disease. Respiratory infections, such as pneumonia and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), involve the aspiration of bacteria from the oropharynx into the lower respiratory tract.
Methods: A matched case control study with a selection ratio of 1:1 was performed using a group of 100 Cases (hospitalized patients with respiratory disease) and a group of 100 age-, gender-, and race-matched outpatient Controls (systemically healthy subjects from out-patient clinic of the Department of Periodontics). The standardized measures of oral health which were performed and compared included the Gingival Index (GI), the Plaque Index (PI), the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI). The data regarding probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) was recorded at four sites per tooth, and compared statistically. Chi-square test and student t-test were employed for statistical analysis.
Results: Comparison of study population demographics on the basis of age, gender, education and income showed no significant differences between groups. Respiratory disease patients have significantly greater poor periodontal health (OHI, PI), gingival inflammation (GI), deeper pockets and CAL as compared with controls. It was observed in the case group that subjects with low income were 4.4 times more prone to periodontal disease as compared to high income subjects. Smokers had significantly higher CAL as compared to non- smokers in the control group.
Conclusions: The findings of the present analysis support an association between respiratory and periodontal disease.