A pioneering study conducted by researchers at the University at Buffalo (UB) has revealed a startling connection between gum disease and an elevated risk of various cancers in postmenopausal women. This extensive research, which stands as the first national study of its kind in the United States focusing on this demographic, involved a detailed analysis of over 65,000 women. Its findings, published in the reputable journal ‘Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention,’ have opened new pathways in understanding the relationship between oral health and systemic diseases, particularly cancer.
Jean Wactawski-Wende, the senior author of the study and a distinguished figure in the field, currently serving as the dean of UB’s School of Public Health and Health Professions, highlighted the study’s unique focus on older women. This demographic, often underrepresented in such studies, provided vital insights into how periodontal disease can influence the risk of developing certain types of cancer. The study’s cohort comprised mostly non-Hispanic white women with an average age of 68, all participants in the comprehensive Women’s Health Initiative, a national project aimed at understanding health and disease risks in older American women.
The research methodology involved assessing participants’ history of gum disease through health questionnaires. Those who reported a history of periodontal disease exhibited a 14% increased risk of developing cancer. Notably, breast cancer was the most common among the participants, with 2,416 women diagnosed out of the 7,149 total cancer cases observed.
Ngozi Nwizu, the paper’s first author, emphasized the emerging evidence linking periodontal disease to a heightened cancer risk. This association necessitates further investigation for a more profound understanding. One of the most significant findings of the study was the heightened risk for esophageal cancer in women with a history of gum disease. The proximity of the esophagus to the oral cavity is a possible factor in this increased risk, as periodontal pathogens may more readily infect the esophageal mucosa. This connection is crucial given the deadly nature of esophageal cancer and the role of chronic inflammation in its development.
In another groundbreaking discovery, the study reported an association between gum disease and an increased risk of gallbladder cancer. This finding is particularly notable as it marks the first time such a link has been established in any population. Chronic inflammation, a common element in both periodontal disease and gallbladder cancer, could be a contributing factor.
The study also found that periodontal disease was associated with an overall increased cancer risk among women who were former or current smokers. This finding is significant as it aligns with existing knowledge about the adverse effects of smoking on oral and overall health.
The research team included notable UB co-authors like Robert J. Genco, Kathleen Hovey, Xiaodan Mai, Michael LaMonte, and Jo L. Freudenheim. They collaborated closely with James Marshall and Kirsten Moysich from the Roswell Park Cancer Institute, ensuring a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach to the study.
This research is not only groundbreaking in its findings but also in its implications. It underscores the importance of maintaining good oral health, especially in older populations, and highlights the need for further research into preventive measures against various cancers. By establishing a link between periodontal disease and cancer risk, this study paves the way for future investigations, potentially leading to new strategies in cancer prevention and early detection.